Although muscle damage may contribute in some way to muscle growth there is no evidence that there is a quantitative relationship between the two, in other words, more muscle damage does not equal more muscle growth.
Surprisingly the muscle damage done during endurance based aerobic exercise is far greater than that done during resistance exercise. Oxidative fibres (used in aerobic/endurance based exercise) have a higher capacity for muscle protein synthesis than do Glycolytic muscle fibres (used in resistance based exercise), this is due to the fact that oxidative fibres have a greater need to replace their proteins than glycolytic fibres, so while the protein synthesis is greater, so is the breakdown.
Muscle growth like a suntan is, in fact, a defence mechanism put up by the body to defend itself against further bouts of high-intensity exercise stress. So, by stimulating the body’s growth mechanism we are in fact activating the body’s defence mechanism by imposing a high-intensity exercise stress, just as we would be stimulating the production of a suntan subjecting the body to a high-intensity sunlight stress.